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abdominal hysterectomy - the uterus is removed through the abdomen via a surgical incision.


adhesion - a band of scar tissue that joins normally separated internal body structures, most often after surgery, inflammation, or injury in the area.


amenorrhea - absence or cessation of menstrual periods.


anemia - blood disorder caused by a deficiency of red blood cells or hemoglobin (the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells); it can result from abnormal blood loss, such as heavy menstrual bleeding.


anovulation - failure of the ovaries to produce or release mature eggs.


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CA-125 test - Blood test to detect an elevated level of a protein antigen called CA-125, which may indicate ovarian cancer, among other disorders.


cervical dysplasia - condition in which cells in the cervix have undergone precancerous changes. It is detected by a Pap smear; treatment can prevent it from progressing to cervical cancer.


cervix - neck and lower part of the uterus. It opens into the cavity of the uterus at the top of the vagina.


CIN (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia) - term used to classify the degree of precancerous change in cells of the cervix in a condition called cervical dysplasia.


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dysmenorrhea - pain or discomfort experienced just before or during a menstrual period.


dyspareunia - pain in the vagina or pelvis experienced during sexual intercourse.


dysplasia - an abnormality of growth.

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endometriosis - condition in which tissue resembling that of the endometrium grows outside the uterus, on or near the ovaries or fallopian tubes, or in other areas of the pelvic cavity.


endometrium - mucous membrane lining of the inner surface of the uterus that grows during each menstrual cycle and is shed in menstrual blood.


estrogen - key female hormone, produced mostly in the ovaries, and essential for the healthy development and functioning of the female reproductive system and in keeping bones strong and brain cells healthy.


estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) - use of the female hormone estrogen to replace that which the body no longer produces naturally after medical or surgical menopause.

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fallopian tubes - two thin tubes that extend from each side of the uterus, toward the ovaries as a passageway for eggs and sperm.


fibroids - noncancerous growths in, on, or within the walls of the uterus that develop from muscle cells in the wall of the uterus.


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HRT (hormone replacement therapy) - use of the female hormones estrogen and progestin (a synthetic form of progesterone) to replace those the body no longer produces after menopause.


hysterectomy - surgical removal of the uterus.



hysteroscopy
- visual examination of the canal of the cervix and the interior of the uterus using a viewing instrument (hysteroscope) inserted through the vagina.

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incontinence, urinary - uncontrollable, involuntary leaking of urine.


 



 



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laparoscope - a slender endoscope inserted through an incision in the abdominal wall in order to examine the abdominal organs or to perform minor surgery

laparoscopy - procedure in which a lighted viewing tube called a laparoscope is inserted through tiny incisions in the abdomen for examination or surgery.


laparotomy - surgery in the abdomen done through a large incision in the abdomen.


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malignant - a condition, such as cancer, that tends to become progressively worse, resistant to treatment, and frequently fatal.


menopause - the cessation of a woman's menstrual periods.


metastasis - the spread of cancer from its original site to other sites in the body.

myoma - a benign tumor composed of muscle tissue, commonly called a fibroid.


myomectomy - surgical procedure done to remove fibroids from the uterus and leaving the uterus intact.

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oophorectomy - surgical removal of one or both ovaries.


ovaries - pair of small glands, located on either side of the uterus, in which egg cells develop and are stored and the female sex hormones estrogen and progesterone are produced.


ovulation - release of a mature egg from an ovary.


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pap test/smear - test in which a sample of cells is taken from the cervix and examined to detect cancer or precancerous changes.


perimenopause - transition period of waning ovarian function that precedes menopause.


PMS (premenstrual syndrome) - range of physical and emotional symptoms that some women experience prior to their monthly periods.


polyp - growth that projects, usually on a stem, from a membrane in the body and can sometimes develop into cancer.


prolapse of the uterus - displacement of the uterus down into the vagina caused by a weakening of supporting tissues in the pelvis.





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salpingectomy - surgical removal of a fallopian tube.


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uterus - hollow, muscular organ in the center of the female pelvis that sheds its lining each month during menstruation and in which a fertilized egg implants and grows into a fetus.


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vaginal hysterectomy - the uterus is removed through the vaginal opening.


vulva - external, visible part of the female genital area.




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